C60 (also know as Carbon 60, C60 Fullerene, Buckyball or Buckminsterfullerene) was discovered in 1986 and the scientists involved were rewarded with the Nobel Prize in 1996 (Harry Kroto, Robert Curl, Richard Smalley).
C60 is a uniquely symmetrical molecule consisting of 60 carbon atoms shaped like a soccer ball, yet very tiny (1.1 nanometer in diameter). The road to general acceptance of this new form of carbon (now called the third allotropic form of carbon, besides the known tetrahedral structure of diamond and the flat layered structure of graphite) was very difficult at that time even with mounting evidence in support of the new discovery.
The C60 buckyball is made of 60 carbons at 60 vertices that make a spherical structure. It is composed of 12 pentagonal and 20 hexagonal rings that are adjacent to each other. These rings are conjugated with double bonds. The C-C bond length for the hexagonal rings is 1.40 A° and 1.46 A° for the pentagonal rings, with the average bond length equal to 1.44 A°. C60 (and other fullerenes) have sp2 as well as sp3 hybridized carbon atoms.
These molecules have extremely high affinity for electrons and can be reversibly reduced to take up 6 electrons. Although C60 is made of conjugated carbon rings, the electrons here are not delocalized, and thus, this molecule lacks the property of superaromaticity.
A wide field of applications
It was not before 1990 that Carbon 60 was synthesized in macroscopic amounts. This opened the door to investigate its physical and chemical (and electronical) properties, shortly after the first functionalization reactions were reported. Functionalized C60 Fullerene exhibited new desired properties like improved water solubility which again opened up a new and wide research field: the application C60 and its derivatives in medicine.
However, many other industrially useful properties have been found and explored since, including but not limited to the use in:
- Lubricants - C60 has very high tensile strength and bounces back to its original shape after being subjected to over 3,000 (!) atmospheric pressure;
- Photovoltaic cells - C60, due to its high electron affinity and ability to transfer electrons, makes excellent acceptors in photovoltaic cells;
- Lightweight alloys as a hardening agent in the fabrication of lightweight alloys; and
- Potential hydrogen gas storage - one molecule of C60 can hold up to 36 hydrogen atoms, promising a better, safer, and more efficient hydrogen storage device than the ones that are currently being used.
Laboratory study proves: C60 is a game changer with regards to longevity, health and quality of life
Although several independent research groups showed that C60 has no acute or sub-acute toxicity in various experimental models, more than 25 years after its discovery the in vivo (metabolic) fate and the in vivo chronic effects remained unknown.
To answer these questions Fathi Moussa and his group in Paris conducted a study that became very famous. The researchers found that the test animals (rats) orally receiving C60 dissolved in olive oil repeatedly not only showed no signs of chronic toxicity but lived almost twice as long (90% longer) as the rats from a control group.
The team concluded that C60 and its surprising anti-aging, health enhancing and health restoring capabilities in lab rats is mainly due to the attenuation of age-associated increases in oxidative stress. Furthermore, the pharmacokinetic part of the study revealed that the dissolved C60 is absorbed by the gastrointestinal tract and eventually eliminated.
Note: Our C60Star Olive Oil is the exact duplicate of what was administered during the study, assuring you to have the original and only formula scientifically proven to have increased the life span of test animals by 90%.
What about benefits for humans?
Once it was shown that C60 dissolved in vegetable oil was non-toxic, research on humans began.
Extensive research on the biomedical applications of this molecule has been underway. Beneficial and astonishing effects have been reported from almost all aspects of wellness and longevity. Not surprising, considering the super antioxidant power of C60, outclassing Vitamin C 172 times.
The enormous ability of C60 to scavenge free radicals can be attributed to the large number of conjugated double bonds and a very high electron affinity (due to low energy of the unoccupied molecular orbit). Free radicals are molecules that have an unpaired electron in an atomic orbit and therefore, are very reactive and unstable.
Reactive Oxygen Species is a special class of free radicals causing oxidative stress to the body by inflicting damage to DNA, RNA, proteins and other molecules in a cell. This leads to significant cell damage and aging. Free radicals are known to be a byproduct of cellular metabolism (e.g. mitochondria) but are also found in the environment due to pollution, smoke, industrial chemicals, and pesticides.
Note: C60 reduces oxidative stress or inflammation in the body which is the cause for many diseases and aging by neutralizing the free radicals.
Research for new biological and medicial uses of super antioxidant C60 is in full swing. Studies and testimonials have shown that C60 dissolved in a vegetable oil (like C60Star products) is:
- Boosting energy;
- Bringing mental clarity;
- Highly protective against radiation and even restoring radiation damaged tissue and organs;
- Reducing wrinkles and other skin challenges when topically applied;
- Enhancing the performance of athletes and reducing their recovery time significantly; and
- Improving eyesight and slowing down or even reversing macular degeneration.